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Details if other :. Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. Understanding Children's Emotions by Isabelle Filliozat. What should they do when faced with their inconsolably sobbing, screaming or panic-stricken children? What should they say to Paul who has lost his daddy? Get A Copy. Paperback , pages. Published November 25th by lulu. More Details Original Title. Other Editions Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up.

To ask other readers questions about Understanding Children's Emotions , please sign up. Be the first to ask a question about Understanding Children's Emotions. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Community Reviews. Showing Average rating 4. Rating details. More filters. Sort order. Start your review of Understanding Children's Emotions. Aug 12, Bilal Y. Huge disappointment. Let me start with the good parts. With these terms in mind, the translation process can be broken down into two types of activity: understanding an ST and formulating a TT.

These do not occur successively, but simultaneously; indeed, it is often only when coming up against a problem in formulating the TT that translators realize they have not fully understood something in the ST. This reinterpretation sometimes entails revising the original strategy, the revision in turn necessitating changes to some of the decisions of detail already taken.

Nevertheless, it is useful to discuss ST interpretation and TT formulation as different, separate processes. The processes of translation are no different from familiar things that everyone does every day. Comprehension and interpretation are processes that we all perform whenever we listen to or read a piece of linguistically imparted information.

Understanding even the simplest message potentially involves all our accumulated experience — the knowledge, beliefs, suppositions, inferences and expectations that are the stuff of personal, social and cultural life. In everyday communication, evidence that a message has been understood may come from appropriate response, for example, if your mother asks you for a spoon, and you give her a spoon and not a fork.

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None of these are translation-like processes, but they do show that the comprehension and interpretation stage of translation involves an ordinary, everyday activity that simply requires an average command of the language used. In each case, there is translation from a non-linguistic communication system to a linguistic one. To this extent, everyone is a translator of a sort. Still more common are various sorts of linguistic response to linguistic stimuli which are also very like translation proper, even though they actually take place within a single language. These sorts of process are what Jakobson ibid.

A brief look at the two extremes of intralingual translation will show what its major implications 11 11 8 Thinking French translation are.

Take the following scenario. Jill is driving Jack through the narrow streets of a small town. A policeman steps out and stops them.

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As he leans in to speak to Jill, she can see over his shoulder that, further on, a trailer has tipped over and blocked the street. Oh, OK. What did he say? But he does not want to sound brusque. Finally, he completes his explanation. This type of intralingual translation we shall call gist translation.

The example also shows two other features which intralingual translation shares with translation proper. The other feature shared by intralingual translation and translation proper is that the situation in which a message is expressed and received affects how it is expressed and received. As will become clear, the Preliminaries to translation as a process 9 whole context is an important consideration in translation; but the more immediate the context, the more crucial a factor it becomes in making decisions of detail.

There are always so many variables in the message situation that it is impossible to predict what the gist translation will be or how the addressee will take it.

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However, depending on how she says it and how Jack receives it, it could give the impression that the policeman was brusque. As a result, it is easy for reformulation consciously or unconsciously to become distortion, either because the translator misrepresents the ST or because the reader misreads the TT, or both. In other words, gist translation, like any translation, is a process of interpretation. This is seen still more clearly if we take an example at the other extreme of intralingual translation.

We shall use the term exegetic translation to denote a translation that explains and elaborates on the ST in this way. An exegetic translation can be shorter than the ST, as in this example, but exegesis is usually longer, and can easily shade into general observations triggered by the ST but not really explaining it. Finally, gist translation and exegetic translation often occur in close association with one another.

Sometimes, they seem to be inseparable, especially in the rewording of metaphor see the Macbeth examples on p. Aerospatiale a: 86 TT In accordance with corporate legislation, we are required to submit a report to the Annual General Meeting of Shareholders with respect to certain agreements entered into by the Company with managers or directors of the Company, or with companies in which such persons exercise similar functions.

Agreements of this nature require prior approval of the Board of Directors. No such agreements or transactions arising therefrom have been brought to our attention. Aerospatiale b: 86 Clearly, the ST reader is expected to know what this law requires.

However it was arrived at, the strategy has clearly been to assume that the TL reader will not understand an unglossed reference to the law of 24 July The TT is basically exegetic, but it is also a gist translation, in that it does not even mention the law by name.