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Based on the German Faustbuch , Doctor Faustus is acknowledged as the first dramatized version of the Faust legend, in which a man sells his soul to the devil in exchange for knowledge and power. While versions of story began appearing as early as the 4th century, Marlowe deviates significantly by having his hero unable to repent and have his contract annulled at the end of the play.

He is warned to do so throughout by yet another Marlowe variation of the retelling--a Good Angel--but Faustus ignores the angel's advice continually. In the end, Faustus finally seems to repent for his deeds, but it is either too late or just simply irrelevant, as Mephistopheles collects his soul, and it is clear that Faustus exits to hell with him. The constant rumors of Christopher Marlowe's atheism finally caught up with him on Sunday May 20, , and he was arrested for just that "crime.

Despite the gravity of the charge, however, he was not jailed or tortured but was released on the condition that he report daily to an officer of the court. On May 30, however, Marlowe was killed by Ingram Frizer.


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Frizer was with Nicholas Skeres and Robert Poley, and all three men were tied to one or other of the Walsinghams--either Sir Francis Walsingham the man who evidently recruited Marlowe himself into secret service on behalf of the queen or a relative also in the spy business. Allegedly, after spending the day together with Marlowe in a lodging house, a fight broke out between Marlowe and Frizer over the bill, and Marlowe was stabbed in the forehead and killed.

Conspiracy theories have abounded since, with Marlowe's atheism and alleged spy activities at the heart of the murder plots, but the real reason for Marlowe's death is still debated. What is not debated is Marlowe's literary importance, as he is Shakespeare's most important predecessor and is second only to Shakespeare himself in the realm of Elizabethan tragic drama.

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10 Facts About Christopher Marlowe

If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! Sign up for the Biography newsletters to receive stories daily and weekly about the people who shaped our world and the stories that shaped their lives. English poet and playwright Robert Browning was a master of dramatic verse and is perhaps best known for his book long form blank poem 'The Ring and the Book.

Auden was a British poet, author and playwright best known as a leading literary figure in the 20th century for his poetry. John Donne, leading English poet of the Metaphysical school, is often considered the greatest loved poet in the English language. He was married to poet Sylvia Plath who committed suicide a year after he left her.

Thomas Hardy was an English novelist and poet who set his work--including The Return of the Native and Far from the Madding Crowd--in the semi-fictionalized county of Wessex. William Blake was a 19th century writer and artist who is regarded as a seminal figure of the Romantic Age. His writings have influenced countless writers and artists through the ages, and he has been deemed both a major poet and an original thinker. This is implied in the accusations that got him arrested, stated outright in the note written by another spy in an attempt to incriminate him, and bandied about a great deal because of his associations with Walter Ralegh and other freethinkers, and because in his plays he wrote things like I count religion but a childish toy.

I tried to imagine what it must have been like not to believe in God in a world where it would have seemed that everyone did. In the environment I grew up in, everyone believed in God. Everyone went to church.

Early years

When I was thirteen and my faith shut off like a switch and my sense of God disappeared as though some inner eye was either at once opened for the first time or blinded, I did not at first think there is no God. At first I thought God has taken away my faith, and I am damned. When you feel yourself at odds with the whole world, perhaps the whole universe, you feel, inevitably, a deep sense of wrongness.

I chose pride, and from his plays it seems that Kit did too. This was what made me first fall in love with him, or a least into obsession.

Who was Christopher Marlowe | Royal Shakespeare Company

I wondered about that but I wondered, too, who had buried him. Ten days before his death he had been arrested on charges pertaining to blasphemy, but released pending investigation. Had they known? His mother could not read, nor his sisters; his father could scrawl his own name.

What would it have been like to go to Cambridge, to speak and write Latin and Greek and French, to wear English like your own skin, and to go home to people who had never had the chance to learn to read? To wonder at your own luck, at what might have happened to your whirring mind had you not been so fortunate? When I was six, the Calvinist school I went to took away my books and told my parents not to let me read so that the other children would catch up.

Sure, Faustus compounds it by summoning a demon, but if you believe yourself to be constitutionally incapable of receiving salvation, why not get what you can while you can? I did not know what had happened to Kit Marlowe in that little room in Deptford that led to him getting stabbed in the eye, but somewhere at the crossroads of my research into the osteological effects of torture, the history of serial murder, and the life of Christopher Marlowe, I came across a figure straight out of hell who might offer some explanation as to why a knife to the eye might have seemed a kind of mercy.

Richard Topcliffe was about the same age as Queen Elizabeth, in his 60s in the s. He was from a wealthy, highborn family; he had known the Queen since they were young. He hunted priests and tortured them.

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He loved his work so much he built his own torture chamber in his house and got permission to take prisoners there. Torture was illegal in Elizabethan England until the s, which may come as a surprise; our modern understanding has everyone before the Victorians racking people on the slightest pretext. Youthful opposition to the Bush administration doing essentially that exact thing had sparked an interest in human rights abuses and forensic anthropology as a method of investigating and prosecuting them.


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  6. One story about Marlowe is that he was cruel. He wrote violent plays and he met a violent end, and in between, we know, he got in several fights. But still. His heroes kill and sometimes go unpunished. He writes of blood.

    Christopher Marlowe Poems

    Once at a production of Tamburlaine, the bullets in the musket onstage were real, and a woman and her child were shot and killed in the audience. A violent man involved with other violent men ends violently; this is not an uncommon story, and if he was a spy, an informant who turned people in to be tortured, well, that fits with the narrative. But another story about Marlowe is that he was kind. He certainly had a lot of friends; he was invited to the great houses, and after his death poets and playwrights wrote glowing eulogies to him and referenced him long after he was gone.

    His plays are dark but they are also often funny. They are brutal, but in them is a thread of universality: we all suffer, we are all human, we all deserve mercy and it is unkind and unfair that the world will not give it to us. Whichever story is the truer one, we know that Marlowe wrote those plays and poems with their brutality and empathy and beauty. We also know he was probably employed as a spy, did dirty, ugly work, and that he died of it. Marlow became a well known figure around London, due partly to his flamboyant dress and the jewellery that dripped off him.

    His first play was Tamburlaine — a long, somewhat unwieldy play, but of great significance in that it was the first noteworthy play written in blank verse, a form that released drama from its constricted poetic conventions, and later used routinely by Shakespeare. He became famous and celebrated, even more so that Kyd, but at the same time, he was restless and dissatisfied, and drank heavily, with writing companions, Thomas Nashe and Robert Greene. At the time of his death he was being investigated for heresy because of his criticism of the inconsistency in the Gospels and his old friend, Thomas Kyd was tortured to denounce him.

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